Boys and young men have unique health-related needs that may be poorly met by existing programs and initiatives.
The mismatch between the needs of boys and young men and current service offerings–driven largely by social
determinants of health such as masculinity–may stymie health status. This is evidenced through high rates of self-stigma,
accidental death or suicide, and low rates of help seeking and health literacy among populations of boys and young men.
With growing interest in improving wellbeing and educational outcomes for all young people (including boys and young
men), this systematic review aimed to evaluate community and school-based programs with specific focus on program features and outcomes directly relevant to young males aged 12–25 years